Great for Revision!

Have you been caught out by the need for exams, even though you and your students have been under lockdown for months? Or would you just like a summary of all the classic and modern studies you’ll ever want? Then Psychology Sorted can solve your problems. Order the Kindle version (just $10.59 at the moment!) for instant access to everything you need to help your students revise, or have the beautiful hard copy for your own bookshelf. Available on all Amazon sites. https://tinyurl.com/y95phpw3 And please leave us a review ๐Ÿ™๐Ÿ˜‰

How to conduct your Psychology Internal Assessment experiment remotely

For blog

This is our latest film on the Psychology Sorted Youtube channel. There is plenty on this blog about how to write your IA, but this video will help you think through the data-collection process when your group is working remotely. How do you obtain informed consent? How do you get your participants? How do you get enough participants? How do you control the variables, debrief participants and share the data collection?

We also provide a useful IA proposal sheet that you, the student, should submit to your teacher for approval before starting to conduct your experiment.

Watch out for more useful Psychology videos this week!

Extended essay – self assess your draft

header

So you’ve ‘pulled it all together’ and written your draft extended essay. Exciting times! Your references are all in alphabetical order, you’ve used 12 pt academic font and double-spaced and numbered your pages. It’s looking good and you’re feeling great!

However, before you hand your precious work in to your supervisor for the one and only piece of written feedback you’re allowed, pause for a few hours, or even days. Take this document, which is already set up with the top band descriptors for every criterion, and go through your essay yourself. Then give your self-assessment to your supervisor with your draft. Unless you decide after doing this that there is more work to be done before you hand in your draft, of course!

Of course, this is only possible if you have a few days. If you have just hurled your essay at your supervisor a few minutes before the deadline, then send them this link and they can use it to give you feedback on your work.

Study under lockdown! Ppt with narration, tasks and SAQ plan.

For those of you wanting some extra help/guidance/just for interest here is a link to my youtube channel and a unit of work on the Sociocultural Approach, Culture and its Effect on Behaviour. Play the video and carry out the tasks. Enjoy!

 

 

 

Online teaching and learning

kid-1520705_640

Many of us are now teaching our classes through a virtual learning environment. Most had very little notice, maybe one or two days, and are now on the steepest learning curve ever. Here are a few tips, followed by some very useful sites and links:

online learning

Several online sites are very kindly offering teachers free access to psychology resources  for at least a month, and often through to the end of June 2020. 

Thank you to those teachers who have sent their students home with copies of Psychology Sorted. Our sales have held steady through March, and we’re sure, with the key studies summaries, QR codes and links to many online resources, all students will appreciate this.

Finally, for those who would like to use psychology as a lens for discussing the current pandemic: 

I am sure there will soon be more resources available on this topic.

Cognitive biases like those listed on the Raconteur site (see this link, and below) can be a useful way to describe not only our own reaction to all the troubling news of the Covid-19 virus, but also to analyse the ever-changing reactions of some of the more prominent politicians!  Here’s hoping your families and you keep safe, and stay online ๐Ÿ™‚

Cognitive biases

 

Cultural bias in diagnosis

(This post gives the example of schizophrenia from some A-level courses. IB Diploma students should use depression instead.)

Cultural bias is highly relevant in the content area of psychopathology (abnormal psychology), especially in the definition of abnormality as โ€˜deviation from social norms.โ€™ This creates the question of whose social norms? Behaviours that may seem normal in one culture are sometimes viewed as extremely abnormal in another. Behaviour being defined as abnormal is the initial step of diagnosis of a mental disorder, which is why cross-cultural diagnosis is controversial. When the medical professional is from one culture and the patient from another, there is the potential for cultural bias.

Schizophrenia and cultural bias

The behaviour that results in a diagnosis of schizophrenia is an example of deviation from social norms in many cultures. There is reduced social functioning and sometimes auditory hallucinations and delusions of grandeur or persecution, as well as reduction in speech and an inability to hold a consistent conversation.

However, with regards to one of the main symptoms, in Maori culture matakites are visionaries (prophets) who hear voices and they are highly respected in the community. The voices are not regarded as auditory hallucinations and the matakites are not diagnosed with schizophrenia (Lakeman 2001).

Wai Turoa Morgan is a Maori Matakite. She is seen as the ‘grandmother’ of the shamans. The Maori possess great knowledge about the power of ancestors and their wisdom. A matakite hearing voices is seen as normal in this culture. (Cc image from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Maori_matakite_Wai_Turoa_Morgan.jpg )

In the USA, Whaley (2004) suggests that cultural bias is responsible for the over-diagnosis of African Americans with schizophrenia. The incidence of diagnosed schizophrenia among this group is 2.1 per cent, while among Americans of European origin it is 1.4 per cent. Another view is taken by Cochrane and Sashidaran (1996), who argue that the poverty and racism experienced by immigrants and refugees is likely to lead to poor mental health. It is not their culture itself that is responsible, but their difficult life circumstances. However, due to cultural bias, it is often seen as being a specifically cultural problem, whereas it is the poverty and racism that are the problems.

Finally, there can be cases where schizophrenia may be less easily diagnosed because of cultural bias. Mesotho et al. (2011) found that while core symptoms of schizophrenia among the Sesotho speakers of South Africa may be similar to those in other cultures, there were also somatic symptoms such as headaches, palpitations, dizziness and excessive sweating. These can confuse the picture for a psychiatrist referring to either of the Western diagnostic manuals, the DSM-5 or the ICD-11, both of which are commonly used in South Africa.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Cochrane, R. & Sashidharan, S. P. (1996) Mental Health and Ethnic Minorities: a Review of the Literature and Implications for Services. NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/Social Policy Research Unit. Report 5. York: University of York

International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision (ICD-11), World Health Organization (WHO) 2019/2021 https://icd.who.int/browse11

Lakeman, R. (November 2001). Making sense of the voices. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38(5):523-31 DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7489(00)00101-2

Mosotho, L., Louw, D. & Calitz, F.J.W. (March 2011). Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa. African Journal of Psychiatry: 50-55

Whaley, A.L. (May 2004).  Journal of Black Psychology, 30 (2): 167-186

DOI: 10.1177/0095798403262062