Have you been caught out by the need for exams, even though you and your students have been under lockdown for months? Or would you just like a summary of all the classic and modern studies you’ll ever want? Then Psychology Sorted can solve your problems. Order the Kindle version (just $10.59 at the moment!) for instant access to everything you need to help your students revise, or have the beautiful hard copy for your own bookshelf. Available on all Amazon sites. https://tinyurl.com/y95phpw3 And please leave us a review
This is our latest film on the Psychology Sorted Youtube channel. There is plenty on this blog about how to write your IA, but this video will help you think through the data-collection process when your group is working remotely. How do you obtain informed consent? How do you get your participants? How do you get enough participants? How do you control the variables, debrief participants and share the data collection?
We also provide a useful IA proposal sheet that you, the student, should submit to your teacher for approval before starting to conduct your experiment.
Watch out for more useful Psychology videos this week!
So you’ve ‘pulled it all together’ and written your draft extended essay. Exciting times! Your references are all in alphabetical order, you’ve used 12 pt academic font and double-spaced and numbered your pages. It’s looking good and you’re feeling great!
However, before you hand your precious work in to your supervisor for the one and only piece of written feedback you’re allowed, pause for a few hours, or even days. Take this document, which is already set up with the top band descriptors for every criterion, and go through your essay yourself. Then give your self-assessment to your supervisor with your draft. Unless you decide after doing this that there is more work to be done before you hand in your draft, of course!
Of course, this is only possible if you have a few days. If you have just hurled your essay at your supervisor a few minutes before the deadline, then send them this link and they can use it to give you feedback on your work.
For those of you wanting some extra help/guidance/just for interest here is a link to my youtube channel and a unit of work on the Sociocultural Approach, Culture and its Effect on Behaviour. Play the video and carry out the tasks. Enjoy!
Many of us are now teaching our classes through a virtual learning environment. Most had very little notice, maybe one or two days, and are now on the steepest learning curve ever. Here are a few tips, followed by some very useful sites and links:
Several online sites are very kindly offering teachers free access to psychology resources for at least a month, and often through to the end of June 2020.
- Quizlet Teacher
- Zoom.us – not resources, but a great free meeting platform for running discussion groups
Thank you to those teachers who have sent their students home with copies of Psychology Sorted. Our sales have held steady through March, and we’re sure, with the key studies summaries, QR codes and links to many online resources, all students will appreciate this.
Finally, for those who would like to use psychology as a lens for discussing the current pandemic:
- Independent article by author Steven Taylor
- Psychology of Disasters
- The Ghost Map
- Asian news article from 6 weeks ago about reactions to the coronavirus. Interesting in retrospect.
I am sure there will soon be more resources available on this topic.
Cognitive biases like those listed on the Raconteur site (see this link, and below) can be a useful way to describe not only our own reaction to all the troubling news of the Covid-19 virus, but also to analyse the ever-changing reactions of some of the more prominent politicians! Here’s hoping your families and you keep safe, and stay online 🙂
The role of fathers as attachment figures
In the past, research into child development tended to ignore the role of fathers in their children’s lives, except as a financial support for mothers, who were viewed as the primary caregivers.
Bowlby’s (1969) theory of monotropy stated that infants have to attach to a single (primary) caregiver within a critical period, with the first 3-6 months of life being particularly important. His evolutionary theory suggested that attachment to a primary caregiver evolved because of its survival and reproductive value. The main caregiver’s role is to nourish the baby and protect it from harm, including disease or accident, so it can survive and reproduce and contribute to the survival of the species. Although he acknowledged that other caregivers existed, this primary caregiver role was always referred to the mother. It was the mother who fed the baby and saw to the child’s every need, while the father’s role was seen as being a good provider of economic support for the family. This reflected the practicalities of family life in the UK in the 1960s, though possibly not as much as Bowlby assumed, as by 1970 nearly half of all married women were in paid employment (McCarthy, 2020).
The UK Office for National Statistics reported 2.8 million lone parent families in 2020, of which 425,000 (about 15%) were headed by single fathers, with 205,000 (7%) of these being fathers of dependent children (ONS, 2021). Although this shows that women are much more likely to be single parents than men, it also demonstrates that there are many men with sole care of their children. It seems that even if we accept Bowlby’s monotropic theory we do not have to accept the assumption that these primary carers will all be female. (Image cc from pexels.com)
So, what is the role of fathers nowadays? It seems to be much the same as the role of mothers. Changes in the law that allow more paternity leave, husbands who work at or from home, adoption by males, both singly and as couples and with more males looking for surrogate mothers for the babies they would like to father have all added to the normality of seeing fathers caring for babies and young children.
Newer studies are finding that fathers play a vital role in children’s cognitive development, behaviour and happiness, right from babyhood. Fernandes et al. (2021) found no differences between three-year-old boys and girls for either mother-child or father-child attachment security. They also found that if the child had lower attachment to one parent, their attachment to the other parent was correspondingly higher. Therefore, there is no reason at all why a father could not be seen as a primary caregiver or why both parents could not be seen as part of a network of multiple attachments of similar quality that includes siblings, grandparents, neighbours and friends.
Psychologists now accept that babies and young children are not unduly stressed by separation from one caregiver so long as they are accompanied and supported by another attachment figure. Separated parents who share the parenting report the same. Unless there is conflict that disturbs the child, they benefit by having attachment to more than one person. Overnight stays with fathers do not disrupt a baby’s attachment to the mother. Interestingly, there is no research to be found on the effect of overnight stays with mothers and if they disrupt a baby’s attachment to the father, when the baby or child lives with their father. It seems this is still such an unusual arrangement that it has not yet become the subject of studies!
Given that fathers are half of all parents, and that research suggests they are as good as mothers in a caregiver role, maybe it is time that we stopped asking where a child’s mother is and just be happy that they have at least one caring parent. Future research will hopefully focus more on a father’s role and prevent us from assuming that the primary caregiver is ‘naturally’ the mother.
Bowlby, J. (1982, 2nd ed.) Attachment and Loss, Vol 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books
Fernandes, C., Fernandes, M., Santos, A. J., Antunes, M., Monteiro, L., Vaughn, B. E., & Verissimo, M. (2021). Early Attachment to Mothers and Fathers: Contributions to Preschoolers’ Emotional Regulation. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 660866. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.660866
McCarthy, H. (2020). Double Lives: a History of Working Motherhood, London: Bloomsbury
Office for National Statistics (2021) Families and Households. Accessed 25 September 2022 from https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/families/datasets/familiesandhouseholdsfamiliesandhouseholds