Here is the final unit of four, giving advice as to what to include in the Evaluation section and how to avoid mistakes. Enjoy!
Here is a guide to writing the Analysis section. Enjoy!
This unit of work covers the topic of what culture is, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, a guide as to how to navigate Hofstede’s page and a focus on the Individualistic/Collectivist dimension. There are lots of videos, tasks and input from students required.
Here is the link to the video:
For those of you wanting some extra help/guidance/just for interest here is a link to my youtube channel and a unit of work on the Sociocultural Approach, Culture and its Effect on Behaviour. Play the video and carry out the tasks. Enjoy!
Many of us are now teaching our classes through a virtual learning environment. Most had very little notice, maybe one or two days, and are now on the steepest learning curve ever. Here are a few tips, followed by some very useful sites and links:
Several online sites are very kindly offering teachers free access to psychology resources for at least a month, and often through to the end of June 2020.
- Quizlet Teacher
- Zoom.us – not resources, but a great free meeting platform for running discussion groups
Thank you to those teachers who have sent their students home with copies of Psychology Sorted. Our sales have held steady through March, and we’re sure, with the key studies summaries, QR codes and links to many online resources, all students will appreciate this.
Finally, for those who would like to use psychology as a lens for discussing the current pandemic:
- Independent article by author Steven Taylor
- Psychology of Disasters
- The Ghost Map
- Asian news article from 6 weeks ago about reactions to the coronavirus. Interesting in retrospect.
I am sure there will soon be more resources available on this topic.
Cognitive biases like those listed on the Raconteur site (see this link, and below) can be a useful way to describe not only our own reaction to all the troubling news of the Covid-19 virus, but also to analyse the ever-changing reactions of some of the more prominent politicians! Here’s hoping your families and you keep safe, and stay online 🙂
I have been trying over the past few years to do this, and am sometimes asked what I mean by ‘a holistic approach.’ The easy way is to demonstrate using an example. If you are teaching/studying the abnormal psychology option, for instance, you will probably be doing this after you have spent some time looking at the core approaches to explaining human behaviour (biological cognitive and sociocultural) and also looking at research methods and ethics.
So, now comes the time to apply your learning to the content of this option. Explore the differences between psychiatry (more medically and biologically based) and psychology (more cognitively and socially based). Take major depressive disorder, for example: how might a psychiatrist explain it? How might they look for evidence to see if their explanation is correct and what sort of evidence would they see as valuable? How valid is their method of looking for evidence? How reliable is it? Does it allow them to develop a theory of etiology of MDD that has good explanatory power? How might they want to treat MDD once they are sure a person is suffering from it? Discuss the benefits and limitations of this treatment. Are there any ethical considerations regarding this treatment?
Now, how might a cognitive psychologist explain MDD? How would s/he look for evidence and what would they accept as evidence? How valid is this method? How reliable is it? Does it allow them to develop a theory of etiology of MDD that has good explanatory power? How would a cognitive psychologist treat MDD. Discuss the strengths and limitations of this treatment. Are there ethical considerations regarding this treatment?
What about sociocultural arguments that childhood trauma, domestic violence, poverty and stress can all singly or in combination be responsible for MDD? That removing the conditions that lead to MDD is the best treatment?
Finally, consider the eclectic approach that is more common nowadays. What is the evidence that a combined approach to both the diagnosis, explanation of* and treatment for MDD may be more successful than a single approach? What is the evidence that doing nothing also works? What about a choice of approaches, or sequential treatment?
If we start the abnormal psychology option with these questions and work together to answer them, then the specific content becomes easier to understand in context of perspectives on abnormal psychology, and within the framework of approaches to research. This can be put into practice in the other options as well. Put it all together!
*e.g. Interaction between genetic vulnerability, environmental trigger and possible faulty cognition.
Most students and teachers of psychology are familiar with Bandura, Ross & Ross’s classic study into the role of social modelling in aggression* It showed that children who observed aggressive acts committed by adults in one setting would, through play, reproduce those acts in another setting when the adult role model was absent. Bandura extended this social learning model in the 1980s into what is now a complex and comprehensive social cognitive theory, further developing and exploring concepts underpinning social behaviour: performance feedback, modelling, and – most importantly of all – moral disengagement.
Moral disengagement is the process by which we disengage our moral self in order to distance ourselves from our actions. It can be seen in soldiers who need to disconnect themselves from their actions in order to live with themselves, and in us every time we buy our food in non-recyclable plastic packaging. The decision to go to war in a just cause can be a moral one, but it still involves killing fellow human beings. The desire for conveniently packaged food is an understandable one, but it still involves environmentally degrading our planet.
Bandura uses social cognitive theory to investigate our moral disengagement from harmful activities. He applies it particularly effectively to drone warfare and to the arms trade. In class I use it to explain how we dehumanise the homeless in order to ignore homelessness.
For Bandura, it is not enough to explain moral disengagement. He believes that if we can understand the processes underlying it, then we can begin to change them, and this is why he promotes social change through locally-distributed films in Africa, Asia and South America, making the abstract explanations of social cognitive theory concrete to people’s lives. Nearer home, we need to use storytelling and media to keep advertising the environmental dangers of uncontrolled consumption. Psychology has a vital role in social change as well as social explanation, for “As a society, we enjoy the benefits left by those before us who collectively worked for social changes that improved our lives. Our own collective efficacy will determine whether we pass on a habitable planet to our grandchildren and future generations.” (Bandura, 2009)
*For those of you who have already bought our book (thank you!), the description of the study design has been changed from a matched pairs to a ‘matched triads’ as the children were matched by measured levels of aggression across the three experimental groups. The effect is the same, to control this variable. We will publish this change in an updated edition in the future.